The basis of every software, application or website is its code. Nowadays, every organization and business in the world uses a wide range of applications and software for day-to-day operations. A flaw in the code of an application can create several problems for everyone who uses it. Vulnerabilities in your website or application code can expose your entire organization to serious cyberattacks, creating serious security and privacy issues..
What is the code vulnerability?
The term code vulnerability is associated with the security of your software. It is a weakness or flaw that can potentially lead to the compromise of software security. Vulnerabilities in the code can be exploited by malicious actors to extract sensitive data, alter your software, or erase everything.
This can have serious consequences such as disruption of day-to-day operations, loss of business, damage to company reputation and loss of customer trust. Successful cyberattacks also often lead to legal battles and heavy fines imposed by various regulatory authorities.
Top code vulnerabilities to watch out for
the VAPT Kratikal team, a CERT-In-empaned security auditor, has performed source code reviews for many organizations around the world, during which experts have reviewed and evaluated the codes of several applications and websites. Here is a list of the top 5 coding vulnerabilities they detected.
Evaluation Injection #1
Referring to improper neutralization of directives in dynamically evaluated code, Eval Injection is one of the most critical code vulnerabilities that occurs when a malicious actor can control part or all of an input string introduced in an eval() function call. The PHP eval() function is a quick way to execute string values as PHP code. However, when used with unknown inputs, it can make code vulnerable to injection attacks.
Eval Injection is an injection technique, using which a malicious actor can inject a custom URL into the PHP eval() function. Successful code injection can be used to execute operating system commands. This type of code vulnerability can lead to serious data breaches, loss of sensitive information, and unauthorized access to servers.
#2 Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
Computer programs and software use commands and queries to facilitate communication between their components. If these requests are not properly encoded, malicious actors can easily tamper with the software. With XSS, an attacker can insert special characters that cause the data to be interpreted as control information for the software. This vulnerability allows certain software components to receive malicious commands and perform unauthorized actions.
#3 Using Hardcoded Credentials/Keys
The use of hard-coded credentials/keys is considered a very insecure coding practice and can lead to critical vulnerabilities. Also called embedded identifiers, hard-coded credentials refer to passwords or other sensitive information in plain text (not encrypted). Often developers and other users embed hard-coded credentials into code to ensure an easy workflow. However, this practice can pose considerable security risks and leaves the software susceptible to exploitation by malicious actors.
Hard-coded passwords are an easy target for password guessing attacks, allowing hackers to hijack devices, firmware, software, and systems. In many cases, the same hard-coded credentials are used in all applications produced by a software development company. So, if malicious actors manage to obtain an app’s default password, they can access all similar apps.
#4 Weak Crypto Hash
Hash functions refer to mathematical algorithms that convert an arbitrary number of bytes of data into a fixed-size byte array. For multiple reasons, coders and developers these days use weak encryption algorithms and cryptographic hashes. But this is considered one of the biggest vulnerabilities in the code and can compromise the privacy of the data they seek to protect.
Weak cryptographic hashes can lead to attacks such as rainbow table lookups. Improper use of encryption algorithms can lead to sensitive data exposure, key leak, insecure session, broken authentication and impersonation attacks. It is strongly advised to use some of the known weak algorithms like MD5 and RC4.
#5 Using standard pseudo-random number generators
Using standard pseudo-random number generators makes you vulnerable to cryptographic attacks. They leave software or an application susceptible to unsafe random errors, which occur when a function that produces predictable values is used as a source of randomness. Pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) are designed to approximate randomness algorithmically. PRNGs can be categorized into two types – cryptographic and statistical.
While statistical PRNGs have useful statistical properties, they produce highly predictable output, which makes them unsuitable for use when security depends on the unpredictability of the values generated. Crypto PRNGs, on the other hand, produce a much harder to predict output. A value can only be considered cryptographically secure if it cannot be easily distinguished from a truly random value. In security-sensitive contexts, using a PRNG algorithm, which is not cryptographically secure, can be a huge mistake..
Discovery Source code Vulnerabilities
The code vulnerabilities mentioned above are just a few of the many critical vulnerabilities found in the source code of several applications used by organizations around the world. The only way to prevent hackers from misusing these flaws is to find vulnerabilities in your software source code before they can.
This can be done by conduct a source code review, in which a team of experts reviews and evaluates your software’s source code for flaws and weaknesses. This practice can help you identify and fix existing code vulnerabilities before hackers have a chance to exploit them.
Worried about code vulnerabilities in your software?
Perform a source code review right away!
The post 5 Critical Code Vulnerabilities to Avoid at All Costs appeared first on Kratikal Blogs.
*** This is a syndicated blog from the Kratikal Blogs Security Bloggers Network written by Dhwani Meharchandani. Read the original post at: https://www.kratikal.com/blog/code-vulnerabilities/